Etiological Exploration of Gender-Based Violence against Male Survivors in Chongwe District, Zambia


  •   Musanshi Chibwe

  •   Gistered Muleya

  •   Francis Simui


Gender-based violence has for a long time been considered as a women’s issue. For over three decades now, the 16 days of activism against Gender based violence which is commemorated worldwide has been on ending violence against women and girls. Recent studies, however, reveal that men too are victims of Gender based violence and they have continued to suffer in silence. Studies have further revealed that men usually do not report cases of Gender based violence which makes the statistics to be very low and attract little or no attention from stakeholders. GBV against men is largely overlooked and trivialized. It is not an issue that is talked about, yet men continue to suffer from multiple forms of GBV which are physical, sexual, psychological and emotional abuses. These forms of GBV have long lasting effects on male survivors yet very little attention has been directed towards establishing the causes of these abuses against men. Thus, the objective of this study was to establish the causes of Gender based violence against male survivors in Chongwe District. The study used a Phenomenological approach with a sample of 9 male survivors. Data was generated through individual interviews, observations, and focused group discussions. The study findings revealed the following causes: Failing to provide for the family, alcohol abuse, infidelity, and desire for women to dominate. It is therefore, recommended that stakeholders mandated to deal with issues of Gender based Violence adequately respond to male violence and abuse as opposed to trivializing their reports.

Keywords: gender-based violence, male survivors, phenomenology Zambia


Agbulos, M.V. (2017). Heterosexual male victims of intimate partner violence: Examing factors that prevent them from reporting their cases [Master’s dissertation, Dyson College of Arts and Sciences Pace University NYC]. Male Victims Partner Violence Examing Factors that Prevent Them from Reporting Their Cases.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cohen, L., Manion, L. and Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5th ed.).

Coomarswamy, C. (2014). Constellations of violence: feminist interventions in South Asia. New Delhi: Sage.

Durham,S. (2020). Hidden suffering: gender-based violence against boys and men. The South African College of Applied Psychology.

Esaaba, E.M. (2019). Domestic violence in Ghana: The attitudes of male victims of Accra. Department of social work, University of Ghana. African Journal of Social Work, 9(1), 2019.

GRZ (2011). Anti- Gender based violence Act of 2011. Zambia Government Printing Office.

Guba, E.G. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 29, 75–91.

Hamoonga. R. (2022). GBV 3rd Quarter Statistics. Retrieved on 13/1/23.

Jenkins, A. (1990). Invitations to responsibility: the therapeutic engagement of men who are violent and abusive. Dulwich Centre, Adelaide,SA.

Johnson, A, G. (2000). The blackwell dictionary of sociology: a user’s guide to sociological language., Blackwell Publ. Inc., Oxford.

Karimi, E., Ondicho, G, T & Muriithi, A. (2021). Correlates of domestic violence against men: qualitative insights from Kenya.

Katongo E.M. (2017) GBV 3rd Quarters Statistics. Retrieved on 25/01/2022 at http://

Kwabena, A.B. (2020). Domestic violence against men in Ghana. Perceptions and the role of the domestic violence and victim support unit. Accra: Ghana Statistical Service.

Lisulo, M. (2019). Attitudes of young people towards female perpetrated Gender based Violence against men in Zambia. [University of Zambia: Unpublished PhD Thesis].

Medzani, M. J. (2019). Intimate partner abuse and male identity: Experiences and perspectives of abused men in Zimbabwe. University of Pretoria.

Mokebo. Z. J. (2018). Gender based domestic violence against African men: A case of the Gusii of Kenya. International Journal of Humanities & social Science studies. doi:10.29032/ijhsss.v4.i6.2018.21-29.

Mongare, J.K., Obonyo, D.J., & Parsitau, D.D (2018). Impact of gender-based violence towards men in Kenya: the case of men in Kiambaa Sub Country, Kiambu. International Journal of Current Aspects in Public Policy Administration and Development, 2(1), 18–25.

Mpampi, H. (2020). Ending Gender-based Violence: An investigation into the role of men and boys in ending Gender-based Violence in selected townships of Lusaka: Cavendish University, Lusaka, Zambia.

Mukulu.E. (2019). Perceptions of men experiencing Gender based Violence in Oshana Region, Namibia. University of Namibia.

Mukwevho, N. (2021). More men seeking help for GBV. Health-e News.4th October 2021.

Mulenga,S. (2020). The social and economic effects of Gender Based Violence. A case study of Lusaka District’s selected compound and residential areas: Bauleni and Mutendere Compound; Woodlands and New Kasama residential areas. Cavendish University Zambia.

Muleya, G., Simui, F., Mundeende,K., Kakana, F., Mwewa, G. & Namangala, B. (2019). Exploring learning cultures of digital immigrants in technologically mediated postgraduate distance learning mode at the University of Zambia. Zambia Information and Communication Technology Journal, 3(2), 1–10.

Mupeta, S., Muleya, G., Kanyamuna, V., & Simui, F. (2020). Civic entrepreneurship: the implementation of civic innovations in the Governance of the University of Zambia. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(7), 674–685.

Muntengwa,W., Namadula, B., Hamainza, V., Simwatachela, R., Kakana, F., Simui, F. and Muleya, G. (2020). Unearthing disablers in the cultivation of civic skills among learners in selected secondary schools in Lusaka District, Zambia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS). IV(IX), 228–238 Zambia. The International Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Research ISSN: 3471-7102.

Muwanigwa, V. (2017). Gender Based Violence in SADC. Law Journal, 76(80),119–164.

Mwanangombe, C. Mundende, K. Muzata, K.K. Muleya, G. Kanyamuna, V & Simui, F. (2020). Peeping into the pot of contraceptives utilization among adolescents within a conservative culture Zambia. American Journal of Educational Research, (8), 513–523. Available online at Published by Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/education-8-8-1.

Mwase, D. Simuyaba, E. Mwewa, G. Muleya, G & Simui, F. (2020). Leveraging parental involvement in the education of their children as a conflict resolution strategy in selected secondary schools, Zambia. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science. 4 (7), 356–365.

Nekhavhambe, V.M. (2021). Experiences of, and support guidelines for male victims of intimate partner violence perpetrated by their female partners in Gauteng, South Africa. [PHD Thesis University of South Africa].

Nyeleti D.M (2018). An assessment of the effects of gender-based violence on victim’s welfare: A case of Lusaka District. [Unpublished Dissertation: University of Lusaka].

Obeji,M., Mwangi, S., & Apollos, F. (2017). Cases and incidences of violence against men in township ward of Nyamira Country. International Academic Journal of Law and Society, (1), 106–125. v1 i1 106 125.pdf.

Phionah, K. (2021). Experiences of Gender based Violence in Family life. A case study of Bugesera District. Kigali. University of Rwanda.

SADC (2015). Barometer. Johannesburg: SADC Gender Protocol Alliance.

Simui, F. (2018). Lived Experiences of students with Visual Impairments at Sim University: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Approach. [Unpublished PhD Thesis, Lusaka: University of Zambia].

Simwatachela, R. Simui, F., Kakana,F., Manchishi, P.C., (2020). Deconstructing quality education in public secondary schools through the lenses of teachers in Lusaka district, Zambia. International Journal of Academic Research and Development. 5 (3), 103–112.

Smith,J.A., Flowers,P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method, and research. Los Angeles: Sage.

Smith, J.A & Osborn, M. (2015). Interpretative phenomenological analysis as a useful methodology for research on lived experience of pain. British journal of pain, 9, 41–42.

Stern, O. (2014) Working with men and boys: emerging strategies from across Africa to address gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS. Men Engage Alliance: Cape Town.

Thobejane,T.D.,& Luthada.V. (2019). An investigation into the trend of Domestic violence on Men: The case of South Africa. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 12(3), 11–18.

Thobejane,T.D., Mogorosi,L.D., & Luthanda, N.V. (2018). Gender-based violence against Men: A muted Reality: Southern African Journal for folklore studies. Volume 28(1), 1–15.|25159/1016-8427/4304.

Uwayisaba. F. (2018). Gender based Violence and it’s socio-economic effects on household in Rwanda. Case study of Kicukiro District Gahanga Sector. University of Rwanda.

Van Manen, M. (2007). Phenomenology of practice. Phenomenology & Practice, 1(1), 11.

Young Women Christian Association (2019). Annual Report. YWCA: Lusaka.


How to Cite
Chibwe, M. ., Muleya, G. . ., & Simui, F. (2023). Etiological Exploration of Gender-Based Violence against Male Survivors in Chongwe District, Zambia. European Journal of Law and Political Science, 2(2), 1–9.